Chrome, Internet Explorer, Firefox…has stopped working

Winsock entries tells Windows 7 how to access your network services. Additionally, your TCP/IP protocol can be corrupted. The TCP/IP protocol is a stack of 4 layers that includes several transport layers, but when this stack is corrupt you will constantly have connectivity issues.

You need Admin access to enter the codes below. Windows button + x, then choose Command Prompt (Admin)
netsh winsock reset catalog (reset winsock entries)

netsh int ip reset reset.log hit (reset TCP/IP stack)

You may have to reinstall Chrome and Firefox or reboot to have the chnage take place.

Is KB3038314 installed? Remove it to see if that fixes it.